YURISDIKSI INDONESIA SEBAGAI NEGARA PANTAI DALAM PROTEKSI KAPAL KARAM SEBAGAI WARISAN BUDAYA BAWAH LAUT

  • Sakina Fakhriah
  • Arie Afriansyah Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: Historic Shipwreck, Jurisdiction, Coastal State

Abstract

This article discusses coastal states’ rights and duties for the search, use, and protection of underwater cultural objects as mandated by international law regulated in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) and the Convention on the Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH Convention). This paper finds that UCH protection in Indonesia is insufficient due to regulatory disharmony and inconsistency. The paper also finds that Indonesia has not ratified the UCH Convention due to the discrepancy between UCH Convention’s fundamental principles and Indonesia’s interests. This article uses a comparison method to several national regulations. In closing, the article tries to explain the appropriate measures for relevant agencies in formulating an effective UCH protection and management strategy, by outlining the obstacles and strategic steps that the Indonesian government can implement without having to ratify the UCH Convention. One of the recommended measures is to arrange regulatory reforms by strengthening Indonesia's sovereignty, setting a strict permit procedure, and constructing a more structured control and supervision, as well as improving inter-agency coordination.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Buku
Dromgoole S, Underwater Cultural Heritage and International Law (Cambridge University Press 2013).
Guérin U, ‘Objectives, benefits to States Parties, and implementation of the UNESCO Convention on Underwater Cultural Heritage’ dalam Robert Yorke, ed., Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage in International Water to the UK (Portsmouth: The Nautical Archaeology Society 2011).
Puspitawati D, ‘The protection of underwater cultural heritage in Indonesian law: Do sunken warships count?’ dalam Hikmahanto Juwana et al., eds., Culture and International Law (Taylor & Fracis Group 2019).
Tanaka Y, The International Law of the Sea (ed. 2, Cambridge University Press 2019).
Jurnal
Agusman DD, 'Status Hukum Perjanjian Internasional Dalam Hukum Nasional RI' (2008) 5 (3) Jurnal Hukum Internasional.
Ardiwidjaja R, 'Pelestarian Tinggalan Budaya Bawah Air: Pemanfaatan Kapal Karam sebagai Daya Tarik Wisata Selam' (2017) 35 (2) Amerta.
Carducci G, 'New Developments in the Law of the Sea: The UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage' (2002) 96 (2) American Journal of International Law.
Flatman J, ‘The origins and ethics of maritime archaeology, Part II’ (2007) 6 (3) Public Archaeology.
Forrest C, 'Historic Wreck Salvage: An International Perspective' (2009) 33 (2) Tulane Maritime Law Journal.
Forrest CJS, ‘Culturally and Environmentally Sensitive Sunken Warships’ (2012) 26 (1) Australian and New Zealand Maritime Law Journal.
Latuputty MH, ‘Indonesia's Obligation to protect Archaeological and Historical Objects Found at Sea Based on 1982 UNCLOS’ (2019) 16 (4) Indonesian Journal of International Law.
Marbun J, 'An Advocacy Approach on Underwater Heritage in Indonesia, Case Study: An Auction on Underwater Heritage from Cirebon Waters in 2010' [2011] The MUA Collection.
Meskin S, Dhiana Puspitawati, dan Setyo Widagdo, ‘Legal Status of Warship Wrecks from World War II in Indonesian Territorial Waters (Incident of H.M.A.S. Perth Commercial Salvaging)’ (2015) 2 (2) Brawijaya Law Journal.
Oseano H dan Mandang D, ‘Penyelesaian Sengketa Antar Negara atas Harta Kekayaan Hasil Eksplorasi di Dasar Laut ditinjau dari Konvensi Hukum Laut Internasional’ (2019) 7 (1) Lex Et Societatis.
Pozdnakova A, 'Historic Shipwrecks – Contemporary Challenges: Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage' [2018] Marlus (Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law Yearbook)
Rachmana M, ‘The Conception of Historic Shipwrecks Ownership In Accordance With International Law’ (2015) 12 (3) Indonesian Journal of International La.
Ridlo MMH dan Alfian MF, ‘Posisi Indonesia Dalam Rezim UNESCO Perlindungan Cagar Budaya Bawah Air: Pencurian Bangkai Kapal Milik Asing di Laut Indonesia’ (2021) 7 (2) Journal of International Relations.
Widiasa R, ‘Penolakan Indonesia dalam Meratifikasi Konvensi UNESCO Tahun 2001 tentang Perlindungan Cagar Budaya Bawah Air’ (2021) 6 (1) Indonesian Perspective.
Zamora TV, ‘The Impact of Commercial Exploitation on the Preservation of Underwater Cultural Heritage’ (60) 4 (2008) UNESCO Publishing.

Website
Dit. PCBM Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebuduyaan RI, ‘Jejak-jejak Karam di Laut Nusantara’ (Kemendikbud Dirjen Kebudayaan, 28 September 2016) diakses 12 April 2021.
Indriyanti Astuti, ‘Pelestarian Cagar Budaya Terbentur Ketidaksiapan Aturan Pelaksana’ (Media Indonesia, 12 April 2017) diakses 27 April 2021.
Junus Satrio A., ‘Perlindungan Warisan Budaya Daerah Menurut Undang-Undang Cagar Budaya’ (Ikatan Ahli Arkeologi Indonesia, 17 Maret 2012) diakses 21 April 2021.
Kementerian Keuangan RI, ‘Menguak Sejarah dari Dasar Laut Melalui BMKT’ (Kementerian Keuangan RI, 27 Maret 2019) diakses 12 April 2021.
Kusnul Nur Kasanah, ‘Menanti Kepastian Arah Pengelolaan BMKT’ (Sekretariat Kabinet RI, 10 Mei 2016) diakses 27 April 2021.
Nia Naelul Hasanah Ridwan, ‘Kepala LRSDKP Menghadiri UNESCO International Conference on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage di Perancis’ (LRSDKP, 27 Juni 2019) diakses 20 April 2021.
Shifa Nurhaliza, ‘BKPM Izinkan Investor Asing Cari Harta Karun Bawah Laut RI’ (IDX Channel, 8 Maret 2021) < https://www.idxchannel.com/economics/bkpm-izinkan-investor-asing-cari-harta-karun-bawah-laut-ri-1 > diakses 22 April 2021.
Stevy Maradona, ‘Asing Angkat 'Harta Karun', Arkeolog: Negara Dapat Apa?’ (Republika, 11 Mei 2021) diakses 25 Mei 2021.
Tamalia Alisjahbana, ‘Indonesia is not signing UNESCO’s Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage’ (Independent Observer, 28 November 2019) diakses 20 April 2021.
Dokumen Internasional
International Maritime Organization, International Convention on Salvage, 28 April 1989.
United Nations, International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to the Immunity of State-owned Vessels, 10 April 1926.
United Nations, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 Desember 1982, 1833 UNTS 397, 21 ILM 1261 (1982).
United Nations, Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, Doc. 31 C/24, Paris, 3 Aug 2001; 41 ILM 40 (2001).
Peraturan Perundang-Undangan
Undang-Undang Nomor 17 Tahun 1985 tentang Pengesahan United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Undang-Undang Nomor 5 tahun 1992 tentang Benda Cagar Budaya.
Undang-Undang Nomor 11 Tahun 2010 tentang Cagar Budaya.
Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2014 tentang Kelautan.
Peraturan Presiden Nomor 39 Tahun 2014 tentang Daftar Bidang Usaha yang Tertutup dan Bidang Usaha yang Terbuka dengan Persyaratan di Bidang Penanaman Modal.
Peraturan Presiden Nomor 44 Tahun 2016 tentang Daftar Bidang Usaha yang Tertutup dan Bidang Usaha yang Terbuka dengan Persyaratan di Bidang Penanaman Modal.
Peraturan Presiden Nomor 10 Tahun 2021 tentang Bidang Usaha Penanaman Modal.
Keputusan Presiden Nomor 19 Tahun 2007 tentang Panitia Nasional Pengangkatan dan Pemanfaatan Benda Berharga Asal Muatan Kapal yang Tenggelam.
Keputusan Presiden Nomor 12 Tahun 2009 tentang Perubahan atas Keputusan Presiden Nomor 19 Tahun 2007 tentang Panitia Nasional Pengangkatan dan Pemanfaatan Benda Berharga Asal Muatan Kapal yang Tenggelam.
Peraturan Menteri Keuangan Nomor 184/PMK.06/2009 tentang Tata Cara Penetapan Status Penggunaan dan Penjualan Benda Berharga Asal Muatan Kapal Yang Tenggelam.
Published
2022-12-31
How to Cite
Fakhriah, S., & Afriansyah, A. (2022). YURISDIKSI INDONESIA SEBAGAI NEGARA PANTAI DALAM PROTEKSI KAPAL KARAM SEBAGAI WARISAN BUDAYA BAWAH LAUT. Refleksi Hukum: Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, 7(1), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.24246/jrh.2022.v7.i1.p123-142