• Eduardus Lemanto Department of Social Philosophy of People’s Friendship University of Russia
Keywords: American fundamentalism, biblicism, christianization, Indonesian fundamentalism, Qur’anism


Millennium era has been marked off by the horrific alert of the human extermination one of which is in the cutthroat tragedy of 09/11 in 2001, Indonesia is no exception. The series of terrorist attacks and suicide bombings that have recurred almost every year since 2000 behooves the Indonesian stakeholders to giving their very eyes on the roots of the problem. In Karen Armstrong’s viewpoint, the savagery of that extremist attack that slay thousands of people has nothing to do with religion alone, but dominantly also with economic cliff and political havoc in both national and global level. But she also calls to mind that it does not mean that religion has nothing to do with any barbarous acts. The atrocities in the name of religious motives in some aspects are convincingly the constant implications of the imparity of political economy. Terrorism and the similar acts of villainy instigated by the religious ideology are like “rotting fruit” of its main tree, fundamentalism. Fundamentalism is categorized as one of the huge challenges Indonesia has been facing along the post-Reform era. This article examines the problem of the absence of social justice and multidimensional approach of development at all level as the backbones and the determining factors of the emersion of the Indonesian fundamentalism.



Download data is not yet available.


Armstrong, Karen. Battle for God. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.
Azra, Azyumardi. Pergolakan Politik Islam: Dari Fundamentalisme, Modernisme, hingga Post-Modernisme (Islamic Political Upheaval: from Fundamentalism, Modernism, to Post-Modernism). Jakarta: Paramadina, 1996.
Barr, James. Fundamentalism. London: SCM Press, 1981.
Crouch, Harold. The Army and Politics in Indonesia. USA: Cornell University Press, 1978.
Dijk, Kees van and Kaptein, Nico J.G., ed. Islam, Politics and Change: The Indonesian Experience after the Fall of Suharto. Leiden: Leiden University Press, Lucis Series ‘Debates on Islam and Society’, 2016.
Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Free Press, 1995.
Dustin Berna, D. A Revolutionary Perspective on Social Movement: Fundamentalism in the Islamic World. Louisiana: University of New Orleans, 2008.
Hadsell, Heide/ Stuckelberger, Christoph, ed. Overcoming Fundamentalism: Ethical Responses from Five Continents. Geneva:, 2009.
Jainuri, Achma. Orientasi Ideologi Gerakan Islam: Konservatisme, Fundamentalisme, Sekularisme dan Modernisme (Ideological Orientation of Islamic Movement: Conservatism, Fundamentalism, Secularism and Modernism). Surabaya: Penerbit LPAM, 2004.
Kusumohamidjojo, Budiono. Filsafat Politik dan Kotak Pandora Abad ke-21 (Political Philosophy and Pandora’s Box of the 21st Century). Yogyakarta: Jalasutra, 2014.
Marsden, George M. Fundamentalism and American Culture: United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Schirrmacher, Thomas. Fundamentalism: When Religion becomes Dangerous. Bonn: Verlag fur Kultur and Wissenschaft-Culture and Science Publication, 2013.
Schwarz, Adam. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. San Francisco: Westview Press Boulder, 1994.
Sen, Amartya. The Idea of Justice. Great Britain: Penguin Books, 2009.
Tibi, Bassam. Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: From Jihadist to Institutional Islamism. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.
Tibi, Bassam. The Challenge of Fundamentalism : Political Islam and the New World Disorder. California: University of California Press: 1998.
Tirtosudarmo, Riwanto. Demografi Politik: Pembangunan Indonesia Dari Riau Sampai Timor-Timur (Demography of Politics: Indonesian Development from Riau to East Timor). Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1996.
Yúdice, George. The Expediency of Culture: Uses of Culture in the Global Era. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

Marbaniang, Domenic. Religious Fundamentalism and Social Order: A Philosophical Perspective. The paper presented at the National Seminar on Religious Fundamentalism and Social Order at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, February 26th -27th, 2010.
“Siwono: Ketidakadilan Sosial Merupakan Roh Pemberontakan (Siwono: Social Injustice Is the Spirit of Rebellion”, in book discussion of Demografi Politik (Demography of Politics). Suara Pembaruan: July 29th of 1996.