• Cenuk Sayekti Universitas Lancang Kuning
Keywords: Competition Law, ASEAN, Harmonization


This paper examines the difficulties of competition law harmonisation in ASEAN. Harmonisation is believed as the main tool to help ASEAN from legal friction and tension when it engaged cross-border trade within its region. The benefits of harmonisation are expected to help the member states to avoid negative impact of anti-competitive conducts. Nevertheless, there is a concern arising from such integration of competition law: differences of treatment and dissonant of legal culture.


Download data is not yet available.


Bikker JA and Van Leuvensteijn M, A New Measure of Competition in the Financial Industry: The Performance-conduct-structure Indicator (Routledge 2014).
Bruneckienė J and others, The Impact of Cartels on National Economy and Competitiveness (A Lithuanian Case Study, Springer 2015).
Budzinski O, Towards Rationalizing Multiple Competition Policy Enforcement Procedures: The Role of Lead Jurisdiction Concepts (Universitätsbibliothek Ilmenau 2015).
Carlton DW and Perloff JM, Modern Industrial Organization (Pearson Higher Ed 2015).
Chia SY, The ASEAN Economic Community: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects', A World Trade Organization for the 21st Century (Edward Elgar Publishing 2014).
Jones A and Sufrin B, EU Competition Law: Text, Cases and Materials (Oxford University Press 2014).
Jones R, 'Economic Integration and Competition Policy: The Agenda for APEC' in Paraskevopoulos C, Georgakopoulos T and Micheles L (eds), The Asymmetric Global Economy: Growth, Investment and Public Policy (AFP Press 2000).
Jusoh S, Damuri YZ and Ramli IM, 'Regional Regulatory Coherence in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: The Case of Competition Law and Intellectual Property' in Intal P. and Mari Pangestu (eds), Integrated and Connected Seamless ASEAN Economic Community (ERIA 2019).
Lee JS, Strategies to Achieve a Binding International Agreement on Regulating Cartels (Springer 2016).
Lafferty RN, Lande RH and Kirkwood JB (eds), Impact Evaluations of Federal Trade Commission Vertical Restraints Cases (Federal Trade Commission 1984).
Neven D and Seabright P, 'Trade Liberalization and the Coordination of Competition Policy' in William S Comanor, Akira Goto and Leonard Waverman (eds), Competition Policy in the Global Economy: Modalities for Co-operation (Routledge 2005).
Porananond P, Competition Law in the ASEAN Countries (Kluwer Law International BV 2018).
Scherer FM, Competition Policies For an Integrated World Economy (Brookings Institution Press 1994).
Wagner H, Economic Analysis of Cross-Border Legal Uncertainty: the Example of the European Union (Fachbereich Wirtschaftswiss, FernUniv. 2004).

Article Journals
Barros PP, 'Merger Policy in Open Economies' (1994) 38 (5) European Economic Review.
Bergman MA and others, 'Merger Control in the European Union and the United States: Just the Facts' (2011) 7 (1) European Competition Journal.
Buccirossi P, 'Vertical Restraints on E-commerce and Selective Distribution' (2015) 11 (3) Journal of Competition Law & Economics.
Brock G, 'Industrial Cases' (1989) 19 Journal of Reprints for Antitrust Law and Economics.
Budzinski O, 'Lead Jurisdiction Concepts: Prospects and Limits for Rationalizing International Competition Policy Enforcement' (2018) 18 (2) Global Economy Journal.
Clarke JN, 'Multi-Jurisdictional Merger Review Procedures-A Better Way' (2006) 14 (2) Trade Practices Law Journal.
Comanor WS, 'Vertical price-Fixing, Vertical Market Restrictions, and The New Antitrust Policy' 98 (5) Harvard Law Review.
----------------- and Rey P, 'Competition Policy Towards Vertical Restraints in Europe and The United States' (1997) 24 Empirica.
Coppi L and Walker M, 'Substantial Convergence or Parallel Paths-Similarities and Differences in the Economic Analysis of Horizontal Mergers in the US and EU Competition Law' (2004) 49 (1-2) Antitrust Bulletin.
Cotterrell R, ‘Law in Culture’ (2004) 17 (1) Ratio Juris.
Desmarais F, 'Export Cartels in the Americas and the OAS: Is the Harmonization of National Competition Laws the Solution?' (2009) 33 (1) Manitoba Law Journal.
Do KT, 'The Perspectives of International Cooperation in Competition Law and Policy' (2009) 3 Zeitschriftt fir Wettbewerbsrecht (ZWeR) Journal of Competition Law.
--------, 'Competition Law and Policy and Economic Development in Developing Countries' (2011) 8 Manchester Journal of International Economic Law.
Evans DS, 'The New Trustbusters: Brussels and Washington May Part Ways' (2002) 81 Foreign Affairs.
Friedman LM, 'Legal Culture and Social Development' (1969) 4 (1) Law & Society Review.
Gal MS, 'Regional Competition Law Agreements: An Important Step for Antitrust Enforcement' 2010 60 (2) The University of Toronto Law Journal.
Gerber DJ, 'The European Commission's GE/Honeywell Decision: US Responses and Their Implications' (2003) Zeitschrift für Wettbewerbsrecht [Journal of Competition Law].
Hays FH and Ward SG, 'Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry' Journal of Instructional Pedagogies accessed 20 December 2019.
Inderst R and Mazzarotto N, 'Can the SIEC Test Be Used to Assess Effects from Buyer Power?' (2017) 8 (3) Journal of European Competition Law & Practice.
Irawan C, 'Legal Harmonization in Asean Economic Communities (Looking for the Best Legal Harmonization Model)' (2018) 3
(2) University Of Bengkulu Law Journal.
Jacquemin A, 'Horizontal Concentration and European Merger Policy' (1990) 34 (2-3) European Economic Review.
Lee C and Fukunaga Y, 'ASEAN Regional Cooperation on Competition Policy' (2014) 35 Journal of Asian Economics.
Lee KJ, 'Culture and Competition: National and Regional Levels' (2008) 21 (1) Loyola Consumer Law Review.
Levenstein MC and Suslow VY, 'The Changing International Status of Export Cartel Exemptions' (2004) 20 (4) American University International Law Review.
Levy N, 'EU Merger Control: From Birth to Adolescence' (2003) 26 (2) World Competition.
Luu HL, 'Regional Harmonization of Competition Law and Policy: An ASEAN Approach' (2012) 2 (2) Asian Journal of International Law.
Malinauskaite J, 'Harmonisation in Competition Law in the Context of Globalisation' (2010) 21 European Business Law Review.
Massey P, ‘Market Definition and Market Power in Competition Analysis: Some Practical Issues’ (2000) 31 (4) The Economic and Social Review.
Matsushita M, 'Export Control and Export Cartels in Japan' (1979) 20 (1) Harvard International Law Journal.
Morgan E and McGuire S, 'Transatlantic Divergence: GE–Honeywell and the EU's Merger Policy' (2004) 11 (1) Journal of European Public Policy.
Mukherjee A and Sinha UB, 'Export Cartel and Consumer Welfare' (2019) 27 (1) Review of International Economics.
Na Ayudhaya PD, 'ASEAN Harmonization of International Competition Law: What Is the Most Efficient Option' (2013) 2 (3) International Journal of Business, Economics and Law.
Németh A and Niemeier H, 'Airline Mergers in Europe–An Overview on the Market Definition of the EU Commission' (2012) 22 Journal of Air Transport Management.
Niels G and Kate AT, 'Introduction: Antitrust in the US and the EU-Converging or Diverging Paths' (2004) 49 (1-2) Antitrust Bulletin.
Parisi JJ, 'Cooperation Among Competition Authorities in Merger Regulation' (2010) 43 Cornell International Law Journal.
Posner RA, 'Vertical Restraints and Antitrust Policy' (2005) 75 (1) The University of Chicago Law Review.
Rhoades SA, 'Market Share Inequality, the HHI, and other Measures of the Firm-Composition of a Market' (1995) 10 Review of Industrial Organization.
Rivers RD, 'General Electric/Honeywell Merger: European Commission Antitrust Decision Strikes a Sour Note' (2002) 9 ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law.
Roberts T, 'When Bigger is Better: A Critique of the Herfindahl-
Hirschman Index's use to Evaluate Mergers in Network Industries' (2014) 34 (2) Pace Law Review.
Röller L and De La Mano M, 'The Impact of the New Substantive Test in European Merger Control' (2006) 2 (1) European Competition Journal.
Rooney WH, Fleming TG and Swaminathan S, 'Amex in Context: Tracing the Application of the Rule of Reason to Vertical Restraints' (2019) Columbia Business Law Review accessed 20 December 2019.
Schultz C, 'Export Cartels and Domestic Markets' (2002) 2 Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade.
Thanadsillapakul L, 'The Harmonization of ASEAN Laws and Policy and Economic Integration' (2004) 3 Uniform Law Review.

Working Papers
Cauffman C and Philipsen NJ, 'Who Does What in Competition Law: Harmonizing the Rules on Damages for Infringements of the EU Competition Rules?' Maastricht European Private Law Institute Working Paper 19/2014 accessed 7 March 2020.
Paul Gorecki, 'Competition Policy in Ireland: A Good Recession?' (2012) ESRI Working Paper 427/2012 accessed 19 December 2019.
Valockova B, 'EU Competition Law: A Roadmap for ASEAN?' EU Centre Working Paper 25/2015 accessed 11 March 2020.

Kerber W and Vezzoso S, 'EU Competition Policy, Vertical Restraints, and Innovation An Analysis from an Evolutionary Perspective' (10th International Society Conference Milan/Italy, 9-12 June 2004).

McGowan L, 'Theorising European Integration: Revisiting Neo-Functionalism and Testing its Suitability for Explaining the Development of EC Competition Policy?' European Integration Online Papers accessed 7 March 2020.
OECD, 'Fighting Hard Core Cartels: Harm, Effective Sanctions and Leniency Programmes' (OECD, 2002) accessed 13 December 2019.
-------, 'Challenges/Obstacles Faced by Competition Authorities in Achieving Greater Economic Development through the Promotion of Competition' (OECD, 2004) accessed 13 December 2019.
-------, 'The Standard For Merger Review' (OECD, 2009) 8 accessed 13 December 2019.
Ristaniemi M, 'Export Cartels and the Case for Global Welfare' Global Antitrust Review accessed 11 March 2020.
Sefton-Green R, 'Multiculturalism, Europhilia and Harmonization: Harmony or Disharmony' Utrecht Law Review accessed 15 December 2019.
The U.S. Horizontal Merger Guidelines 2010 at U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, 'Horizontal Merger Guidelines 2010' (USDOJ, 2010) accessed 8 June 2019.
UNCTAD, 'Competition Policy and Vertical Restraints: Note / by the UNCTAD Secretariat.' (UNCTAD, 1999) accessed 19 December 2019.
----------, 'The Use of Economic Analysis in Competition Cases: Study/by the UNCTAD Secretariat' (UNCTAD, 2009) accessed 20 December 2019.
-----------, 'Cross-border Anticompeti-tive Practices: The Challenges for Developing Countries and Economies in Transition' (UNCTAD, 2012) 3 accessed 20 December 2019.
Wong J, 'On Legal Harmonisation Within ASEAN' (Singapore Law Review, 2013) accessed 7 March 2020.

Council Regulation (EC) 4064/89 on the Control of Concentrations Between Undertakings (EC Merger Regulation) [1989] OJ L257/90 P 13.
Council Regulation (EC) 139/2004 on the Control of Concentrations between Undertakings (EC Merger Regulation)' [2004] OJ L24/29.1.2004 P 1-22.

Pettman S, Standards Harmonisation in ASEAN: Progress, Challenges and Moving Beyond 2015 (ERIA Discussion Paper Series 2013).
Aldaba RM, Emerging Issues in Promoting Competition Policy in the APEC and ASEAN Countries (PIDS Discussion Paper Series 2008).
How to Cite
Sayekti, C. (2020). COMPETITION LAW HARMONIZATION: WHAT ASEAN CAN LEARN FROM OTHERS?. Refleksi Hukum: Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, 4(2), 195-216.