DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LEARNED-HELPLESSNESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LOWER GRADE AND HIGHER GRADE IN SALATIGA INDONESIA
This research aimed to investigate whether there is any significant difference in the tendency of experiencing learned-helplessness between high school students with lower grade and higher grade in Salatiga, Indonesia. Survey method was used in collecting the data,utilizing Perceived Influence Questionnaire (Holt, 1980) as the instrument of measurement. 317 participants were involved,
consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed)), with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.
Barber, J.G. 1985. Competing Accounts of the Learned-Helplessness Effect in Human. Thesis Unpublished. Unviersity of Adelaide.
Blair, J.R. 1972. The effect of differential reinforcement on the discrimination learning of normal and low achieveng middle-class boys. Child Development , 43, 251-252.
Canino, F.J. 1981. Learned-Helplessness Theory: The implication for research in learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 18 , 471-484
Cullen, J.L. & Boersma, F.J. 1982. The influence of coping strategies on the manifestation of learned-helplessness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 7, 346-356.
Dweck, C. 2000.Self-Theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Dweck, C.S. & Repucci, N.D. 1972. Learned-helplessness and reinforcement responsibility in children.Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 25, 109-116.
Hiroto, D.S. & Seligman, M.E. 1975. Generality of learned-helplessness in man . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 311-327
Holt, I.J. 1980. A preliminary Investigation of Learned-Helplessness in Juvenile Delinquen. Thesis unpubisbhed. Ohio State university.
Jalil, A. Penyebab Prestasi Akademik anak anjlok,Suara Merdeka 6 Maret 2006
Peterson & Seligman and Social Psychology.1984. Causal Explanation as a risk factor for depresion: Theory and Wvidence. Psychological Review, 31, 311-327.
Ramirez, E., Maldonado, A., & Martos, R. 1992. Attribution modulate immunization agaisnt learned helplessness in human. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 139-146.
Razeen, M.A.M. 2004. Investigaing Risk for Learned-Helplessness among low academic achiever at International Islamic Univeristy Malaysia: An Exploratory Study. Thesis Unpublished : International Islamic University, Malaysia.
Scales, P.C. & Roehlkelpartain, E.C. 2003.Boosting students achievement: New research on the Power of Developmenet Assets Search Institute Insights and Evidence, 1, 1-10.
Seligman, M. & Maier, S. 1967. Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology,74, 1-9.
Seligman, M.E.P. 1991.Learned Optimistm. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Shields, K. 1997.The Conflict of learned helplessness in motivation. Diunduh.10 Maret 2011 dari: http//ematusov.soe.udel.edu/finalpaperpub/_pwfsfp/00000062/html
Stipek, D.E.P.1988.Motivation to learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Sundiawan, A. 2006.Prestasi Olimpiade Sains Hanya Kamuflase.
Thantawi.1997.Kasus Bimbingan dan Konseling.Jakarta Timur: Pamator.
Titscher A. & Kubinger. 2008. An Innovative Method for Testing Children’s Achievement-Related Reaction. School Psychology International, 29, 452-465
Satya Widya is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License