How does proactive personality promote calling at work? A dual-path mediation model

Keywords: calling, proactive personality, job crafting, leader-member exchange, career construction theory (CCT), social exchange theory (SET)


In previous studies, calling mechanism as an adaptation result can be explained using the career construction theory (CCT) through the adaptive readiness and adapting response that employees have and do. However, this perspective has not accounted for external factors that might affect the adapting response impact on the formation of their calling. This study aimed at addressing this gap by using not only the CCT perspective but also the social exchange theory (SET) to see the relationship between proactive personality and individual calling through the roles of two mediators, namely job crafting and LMX. The research data were collected using an online survey involving active employees (N = 222) who have worked for at least one year in various banking industries. The data were analysed using a parallel mediation model analysis from Hayes (2017) with SPSS for Windows. The results show that proactive personality positively contributes to calling either directly or indirectly through both mediators (i.e job crafting and LMX). This dual path mediation model provides a new perspective in understanding that each job crafting and LMX has their role in explaining the mechanism of the relationship between proactive personality and the calling of the employees in their work. Therefore, this study has both theoretical and practical implications for the existing literature of calling.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Corina D. Riantoputra, Faculty of Psychology

Associate Professor

Faculty of Psychology

Universitas Indonesia


Adams, C. M. (2012). Calling and career counseling with college students: Finding meaning in work and life. Journal of College Counseling, 15(1), 65–80.

Bailey, K., & Breslin, D. (2021). The COVID-19 Pandemic: What can we learn from past research in organizations and management? International Journal of Management Reviews, 23(1), 3–6.

Bakker, A. B., Tims, M., & Derks, D. (2012). Proactive personality and job performance: The role of job crafting and work engagement. Human Relations, 65(10), 1359–1378.

Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14(2), 103–118.

Bauer, T. N., & Green, S. G. (1996). Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39(6), 1538–1567.

Berg, J. M., Grant, A. M., & Johnson, V. (2010). When callings are calling: Crafting work and leisure in pursuit of unanswered occupational callings. Organization Science, 21(5), 973–994.

Bernerth, J. B., & Aguinis, H. (2016). A Critical Review and Best-Practice Recommendations for Control Variable Usage. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 229–283.

Bott, E. M., & Duffy, R. D. (2014). A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Career Calling Among Undergraduates: Testing for Predictors. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(2), 250–264.

BPS. (2017). Keadaan Ketenagakerjaan Indonesia Agustus 2017. In Badan Pusat Statistik (Vol. 11, Issue 103). Retrieved July 07, 2021, from

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Van Den Heuvel, M. (2015). Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), 754–770.

Chan, J. T. (2020). Snowball Sampling and Sample Selection in a Social Network. 42, 61–80.

Crant, J. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3), 435–462.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (2nd Ed).

Cropanzano, R., Anthony, E. L., Daniels, S. R., & Hall, A. V. (2017). Social exchange theory: A critical review with theoretical remedies. Academy of Management Annals, 11(1), 479–516.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An Interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

Daniels, M. A., & Greguras, G. J. (2014). Exploring the Nature of Power Distance: Implications for Micro- and Macro-Level Theories, Processes, and Outcomes. Journal of Management, 40(5), 1202–1229.

Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader-Member Exchange Model of Leadership: A Critique and Further Development. The Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 618–634.

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and Vocation at Work: Definitions and Prospects for Research and Practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424–450.

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). Strategies for discerning and living a calling. In APA handbook of career intervention (Vol. 2, pp. 305–317).

Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 242–263.

Dorfman, P., & Howell, J. (1988). Dimensions of National Culture and Effective Leadership Patterns : Hofstede revisited. Advances in International Comparative Management, 3, 127–150.

Douglass, R. P., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). Calling and career adaptability among undergraduate students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 58–65.

Duarsa, H. C., & Riantoputra, C. D. (2017). Leader-member exchange as a mediator in the relationship between benevolence value and leader effectiveness: An insight into the hotel industry of Bali. Asian Journal of Business and Accounting, 10(2), 281–301.

Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., Torrey, C. L., & Dik, B. J. (2012). Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: Testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 50–59.

Duffy, R. D., & Dik, B. J. (2013). Research on calling : What have we learned and where are we going ? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 428–436.

Duffy, R. D., Dik, B. J., Douglass, R. P., England, J. W., & Velez, B. L. (2018). Work as a Calling : A Theoritical Model. Work Orientations, 65(4), 423–439.

Dulebohn, J. H., Bommer, W. H., Liden, R. C., Brouer, R. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2012). A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Consequences of Leader-Member Exchange: Integrating the Past With an Eye Toward the Future. Journal of Management, 38(6), 1715–1759.

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2015). Leader-Member Exchange Theory. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: 2nd Edition, 13, 641–647.

Ertürk, A., & Albayrak, T. (2020). Empowerment and organizational identification: The mediating role of leader–member exchange and the moderating role of leader trustworthiness. Personnel Review, 49(2), 571–596.

Esteves, T., & Lopes, M. P. (2016). Crafting a Calling: The Mediating Role of Calling Between Challenging Job Demands and Turnover Intention. Journal of Career Development, 44(1), 34–48.

Esteves, T., Lopes, M. P., Geremias, R. L., & Palma, P. J. (2018). Calling for leadership: leadership relation with worker’s sense of calling. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 39(2), 248–260.

Frederick, D. E., & VanderWeele, T. J. (2020). Longitudinal meta-analysis of job crafting shows positive association with work engagement. Cogent Psychology, 7(1).

Fuller, B., & Marler, L. E. (2009). Change driven by nature: A meta-analytic review of the proactive personality literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 329–345.

Gazica, M. W., & Spector, P. E. (2015). A comparison of individuals with unanswered callings to those with no calling at all. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 1–10.

Geldenhuys, M., Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2020). How task, relational and cognitive crafting relate to job performance: a weekly diary study on the role of meaningfulness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 30, 83–94.

Glaser, L., Stam, W., & Takeuchi, R. (2016). Managing the risks of proactivity: A multilevel study of initiative and performance in the middle management context. Academy of Management Journal, 59(4), 1339–1360.

Gong, Y., Cheung, S. Y., Wang, M., & Huang, J. C. (2012). Unfolding the Proactive Process for Creativity: Integration of the Employee Proactivity, Information Exchange, and Psychological Safety Perspectives. Journal of Management, 38(5), 1611–1633.

Graen, G. B., & Uhl-bien, M. (1995). Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership : Development of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi Domain Perspective. Management Department Faculty Publications, 57, 30.

Gupta, N., & Chadha, N. K. (2017). A Study of Proactive Personality, LMX Quality and Employee Creativity in Delhi and NCR Organisations. Global Journal of Enterprise Information System, 9(2), 77.

Hair, J. F., William, C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2018). Multivariate Daya Analysis (Ed 8th). Cengage Learning, Inc.

Hayes, A. . (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis : A regresion-based approach. The Guilford Press.

JobsDB. (2015, August 15). 88% Pekerja Indonesia Berpendapat Pindah Kerja Adalah Keputusan Terbaik Mereka. Retrieved April 04, 2020, from

Kacmar, K. M., Witt, L. A., Zivnuska, S., & Gully, S. M. (2003). The interactive effect of leader-member exchange and communication frequency on performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 764–772.

Koopman, J., Howe, M., Hollenbeck, J. R., & Sin, H. P. (2015). Small sample mediation testing: Misplaced confidence in bootstrapped confidence Intervals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 194–202.

Kovalčikienė, K., & Daukilas, S. (2018). Vocational teachers’ personality, career calling and the aspects of teaching quality. 8(1), 39–49.

Kramer, A., & Kramer, K. Z. (2020). The potential impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on occupational status, work from home, and occupational mobility. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 119, 103442.

Lan, J., WONG, C.-S., Jiang, C., & Mao, Y. (2017). Leadership & Organization Development Journal. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(2), 1–43.

Lau, P. L., Wilkins-Yel, K. G., & Wong, Y. J. (2020). Examining the Indirect Effects of Self-Concept on Work Readiness Through Resilience and Career Calling. Journal of Career Development, 47(5), 551–564.

Lee, J. Y., & Lee, Y. (2018). Job Crafting and Performance: Literature Review and Implications for Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Review, 17(3), 277–313.

Li, H., & Yang, X. (2018). When a calling is living: Job crafting mediates the relationships between living a calling and work engagement. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 9(2), 77–106.

Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J. M. (2010). The Role of Proactive Personality in Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Relational Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 395–404.

Liao, E. Y., & Hui, C. (2019). A resource-based perspective on leader-member exchange : An updated meta-analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Management.

Liden, R. C., Erdogan, B., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2006). Leader-member exchange, differentiation, and task interdependence: Implications for individual and group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(6), 723–746.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A Longitudinal Study on the Early Development of Leader-Member Exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 662–674.

MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614.

McCormick, B. W., Guay, R. P., Colbert, A. E., & Stewart, G. L. (2019). Proactive personality and proactive behaviour: Perspectives on person–situation interactions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 92(1), 30–51.

Niessen, C., Weseler, D., & Kostova, P. (2016). When and why do individuals craft their jobs? The role of individual motivation and work characteristics for job crafting. Human Relations, 69(6), 1287–1313.

O’Rourke, H. P., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2015). When the Test of Mediation is More Powerful than the Test of the Total Effect. Physiology & Behavior, 47(1), 424–442.

Park, J., Kim, S., Lim, M., & Sohn, Y. W. (2019). Having a calling on board: Effects of calling on job satisfaction and job performance among South Korean newcomers. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1584.

Park, J., Lee, K., Lim, J. I., & Sohn, Y. W. (2018). Leading with callings: Effects of leader’s calling on followers’ team commitment, voice behavior, and job performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1–12.

Petrou, P., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2015). Job crafting in changing organizations: Antecedents and implications for exhaustion and performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 21(3), 283–283.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

Prasetyaningtyas, W. S., Raharjo, K., & Afrianty, T. W. (2020). Pengaruh kepemimpinan transformasional dan budaya organisasi terhadap knowledge sharing dan kepuasan kerja. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Bisnis, 23(2), 379–399.

Qi, Y., Liu, T., & Chen, Y. W. (2017). Relationships among personality, calling, career engagement, and self-defeating job search behavior in Chinese undergraduate students: The mediating effects of career adaptability. 2017 EEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 2215–2220.

Riasnugrahani, M., Riantoputra, C. D., Takwin, B., & Panggabean, H. (2019). Discerning Work as a Calling: The Role of Job Crafting. Career Development Quarterly, 67(4), 343–356.

Rosa Dalla, A., Vianello, M., & Anselmi, P. (2019). Longitudinal predictors of the development of a calling: New evidence for the a posteriori hypothesis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 114(February), 44–56.

Rudolph, C. W., Lavigne, K. N., & Zacher, H. (2017). Career adaptability: A meta-analysis of relationships with measures of adaptivity, adapting responses, and adaptation results. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 17–34.

Sahni, S., & Sinha, C. (2020). Effect of Fairness on Employee Outcome: An LMX Perspective on Indian Banks. Global Business Review, 21(4), 1113–1126.

Savickas, M.L. (2013). The Theory and Practice of Career Construction. In S. D. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.). In Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work (pp. 147–183).

Savickas, Mark L., & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 661–673.

Schabram, K., & Maitlis, S. (2017). Negotiating the challenges of a calling: Emotion and enacted sensemaking in animal shelter work. Academy of Management Journal, 60(2), 584–609.

Schermuly, C. C., Meyer, B., & Dämmer, L. (2013). Leader-member exchange and innovative behavior: The mediating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12(3), 132–142.

Seibert, S. E., Grant, J. M., & Kraimer, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(3), 416–426.

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M., & Crant, J. M. (2001). What Do Proactive People Do? Personnel Psychology, 54(4), 845–874.

Shi, J., Johnson, R. E., Liu, Y., & Wang, M. (2013). Linking subordinate political skill to supervisor dependence and reward recommendations: A moderated mediation model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(2), 374–384.

Slemp, G. R., & Vella-brodrick, D. A. (2013). The Job Crafting Questionnaire: A new scale to measure the extent to which employees engage in job crafting. International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(2).

Spurk, D., Volmer, J., Hagmaier, T., & Kauffeld, S. (2013). Why are proactive people more successful in their careers? The role of career adaptability in explaining multiple career success criteria. Personality Traits: Causes, Conceptions and Consequences, 27–48.

Sun, S., & Van Emmerik, H. I. J. (2015). Are proactive personalities always beneficial? Political skill as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 966–975.

Šverko, I., & Babarović, T. (2018). Applying career construction model of adaptation to career transition in adolescence: A two-study paper. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 111, 59–73.

Talu, S., & Nazarov, A. D. (2020). Challenges and Competencies of Leadership in Covid-19 Pandemic. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 486, 518–524.

Teng, H. Y., & Chen, C. Y. (2019). Proactive personality and job crafting in the tourism industry: Does job resourcefulness matter? Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 41, 110–116.

Thompson, J. A. (2005). Proactive personality and job performance: A social capital perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 1011–1017.

Tian, T., & Wu, C. B. (2015). Is Huawei the next one to fall? Beijing: China Citic Press. China Citic Press.

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2012). Development and validation of the job crafting scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(1), 173–186.

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., Derks, D., & van Rhenen, W. (2013). Job Crafting at the Team and Individual Level: Implications for Work Engagement and Performance. Group & Organization Management, 38(4), 427–454.

Tokar, D. M., Savickas, M. L., & Kaut, K. P. (2020). A Test of the Career Construction Theory Model of Adaptation in Adult Workers With Chiari Malformation. Journal of Career Assessment, 28(3), 381–401.

Tolentino, L. R., Garcia, P. R. J. M., Lu, V. N., Restubog, S. L. D., Bordia, P., & Plewa, C. (2014). Career adaptation: The relation of adaptability to goal orientation, proactive personality, and career optimism. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84(1), 39–48.

Tummers, L. G., & Knies, E. (2013). Leadership and meaningful work in the public sector. Public Administration Review, 73(6), 859–868.

Van Wingerden, J., & Niks, I. M. W. (2017). Construction and validation of the perceived opportunity to craft scale. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.

Van Wingerden, J., & Poell, R. F. (2017). Employees’ perceived opportunities to craft and in-role performance: The mediating role of job crafting and work engagement. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.

Verma, J. P., & Verma, P. (2020). Determining Sample Size and Power in Research Studies. In Determining Sample Size and Power in Research Studies.

Vermooten, N., Boonzaier, B., & Kidd, M. (2019). Job crafting, proactive personality and meaningful work: Implications for employee engagement and turnover intention. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 45, 1–13.

Wibawa, W. M. S., Takahashi, Y., & Riantoputra, C. D. (2021). Investigating Work Engagement of Highly Educated Young Employees through Applying the Job Demands-Resources Model. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 10, 89–102.

Wijaya, N. H. S. (2019). Proactive Personality, LMX, and Voice Behavior: Employee–Supervisor Sex (Dis)similarity as a Moderator. Management Communication Quarterly, 33(1), 86–100.

Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179–201.

Xie, B., Xia, M., Xin, X., & Zhou, W. (2016). Linking calling to work engagement and subjective career success: The perspective of career construction theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 94, 70–78.

Xie, B., Zhou, W., Xia, D., & Guo, Y. (2019). What drives the trickle-down effect of calling orientation from supervisors to subordinates? The perspective of social learning theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 905.

Yang, F., & Chau, R. (2016). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(2), 467–482.

Yizhong, X., Baranchenko, Y., Lin, Z., Lau, C. K., & Ma, J. (2019). The influences of transformational leadership on employee employability: Evidence from China. Employee Relations, 41(1), 101–118.

Zhang, C., Hirschi, A., Herrmann, A., Wei, J., & Zhang, J. (2016). The Future Work Self and Calling: The Mediational Role of Life Meaning. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(4), 977–991.

Zhang, Z., Wang, M., & Shi, J. (2012). Leader-follower congruence in proactive personality and work outcomes: The mediating role of leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 111–130.

Zhu, F., Cai, Z., Buchtel, E. E., & Guan, Y. (2019). Career construction in social exchange: a dual-path model linking career adaptability to turnover intention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, 282–293.
How to Cite
Hanan, N., Riasnugrahani, M., & Riantoputra, C. (2021). How does proactive personality promote calling at work? A dual-path mediation model. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Bisnis, 24(2), 329-360.