Optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly Design for Boron Neutron Capture Cancer Therapy Facility Based on 30 MeV Cyclotron

  • I Made Ardana Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,Gadjah Mada University
  • Kusminarto Kusminarto Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,Gadjah Mada University
  • Yohannes Sardjono Center of Science and Technology of Accelerator; National Nuclear Energy Agency
Keywords: ANSYS-Fluent, Beam Shaping Assembly, Monte Carlo N Particle-X


A series of simulations has been carried out using a Monte Carlo N Particle X code to find out the final composition and configuration of a neutron Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA)  to moderate the fast neutron flux which is generated from the thick disk-type beryllium target. The final configuration for neutron BSA design included 35 cm lead as reflector, 39 cm alumina as moderator, 8.2 cm lithium fluoride as fast neutron filter and 0.5 cm boron carbide as thermal neutron filter. Bismuth, lead fluoride, and lead were chosen as the aperture, reflector, and gamma shielding, respectively. The disk-type of beryllium target is 19 cm in diameter with 0.5 cm thickness which is covered by copper plate to hold the water pressured coolant. A higher yield of neutron production requires a higher intensity of proton beams, which generate much heats and causes the target material to melt. Therefore, it is useful to consider the temperature distribution on the target material with flowing water coolant by means of computer modeling while designing the target. ANSYS-Fluent code will be used to estimate the thermal transfer and heat calculation in a solid target during beam irradiation. Epithermal neutron flux in the suggested design were 1,03x109 n/cm2 s, with almost all IAEA parameters for BNCT BSA design has been satisfied.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguino, Z.P., Vintro, X.L.Sancho, F.J., Pousa, L., dan Agusti, M.Q. (2011). Head and Neck Sarcomas . Our Experience, Acta Ottorinolaringologica Espanola, vol. 62, no. 6, 436-442.

Andoh, T., Fujimoto, T. Sudo, T., Fujita, I., Imabori, M., Moritake, H., Sugimoto, T., dan Sakuma,Y. (2011). Boron neutron capture therapy for clear cell sarcoma ( CCS ): Biodistribution study of p -borono- L -phenylalanine in CCS-bearing animal models, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 69, no. 12, 1721–1724.

Ardana, I M., Kusminarto, Sardjono,Y. (2015). Optimization Of Neutron Beam Shaping Assembly Design For Bnct Based Cyclotron 30 Mev Using Monte Carlo N Particle X Code, 1st International Symposium: The Application of Nuclear Technology to Support National Sustainable Development for Health, Agriculture, Energy, Industry and Environment, Satya Wacana Christian University-Salatiga, Central Java

Burlon, A.A., Girola, S., Valda, A.A., Minsky, D.M., Kreiner, A.J., dan Sanchez, G., (2011). Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA , vol. 69, 1688–1691.

Capoulat, M.E., Herrera, M.S., Minsky, D.M., Gonzales, S.J. dan Kreiner A.J. (2014). Be (d,n) 10 B-based neutron sources for BNCT, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 88, 190–194.

Drosg, M., Monoenergetic Neutron Production By Two-Body Reactions In The Energy Range From 0.0001 To 500 Mev, Institute Of Experimental Physics, University Of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, AUSTRIA.

Faghihi, F., dan Khalili, S. (2013). Beam Shaping Assembly of a D – T Neutron Source for BNCT and its Dosimetry Simulation in Deeply-seated Tumor, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 89, 1–13.

Hashimoto, Y., Fujio Hiraga, Yoshiaki Kiyanagi. (2014). Effects of proton energy on optimal moderator system and neutron-induced radioactivity of compact accelerator-driven Be(p,n) neutron sources for BNCT, Physics Procedia, vol. 60, pp. 332-340.

Herrera, M.S. , S.J. González , D.M. Minsky, Kreiner, A.J. (2013). Evaluation of performance of an accelerator-based BNCT facility for the treatment of different tumor targets, Physica Medica, vol. 29, pp. 436-446

Imoto, M., H. Tanaka, K. Fujita, T. Mitsumoto, K. Ono, A. Maruhashi, Y. Sakurai. (2011). Evaluation for activities of component of Cyclotron-Based Epithermal Neutron Source (C-BENS) and the surface of concrete wall in irradiation room, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 69 (2011), pp. 1646–1648.

International Atomic Energy and Agency (IAEA). (2015). Current status of neutron capture therapy, Asutria : IAEA.

Lee, B. N., J. A. Park, Y. S. Lee, H. S. Song, H. W. Kim, T. Zhou and S. H. Lee. (2011). Design of Neutron Targets with the 4 MeV Cyclotron for BNCT, Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 2032_2034.

Mitsumoto, T., K. Fujita, T. Ogasawara, H. Tsutsui, S. Yajima, A. Maruhashi, Y. Sakurai, H. Tanaka. (2010). BNCT System Using 30 Mev H- Cyclotron, Proceedings Of Cyclotrons, Lanzhou, China

Moss, R.L. (2014). Critical review , with an optimistic outlook , on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ( BNCT ), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 88, pp. 2–11.

Ono, Koji. (2013). Experience of BNCT by KUR and Start of Clinical BNCT Trial by Small Cyclotron Based Neutron Generator in KURRI, Ms. Power Point Presentation Slide.

Pazirandeh, A., Torkamani, A., dan Taheri, A. (2011). Design and simulation of a neutron source based on an electron linear accelerator for BNCT of skin melanoma, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 69, no. 5, 749–755.

Rasouli, F.S., Masoudi, S.F., dan Kasezas, Y., 2012, Design of a model for BSA to meet free beam parameters for BNCT based on multiplier system for D – T neutron source, Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 39, no. 1, 18–25.

Suzuki, M., Hiroki Tanaka, Yoshinori Sakurai, Genro Kashino, Liu Yong, Shinichiro Masunaga,Yuko Kinashi, Toshinori Mitsumoto, Satoru Yajima, Hiroshi Tsutsui, Takemi Sato, Koji Ono, Akira Maruhashi. (2009). Impact of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) on the treatment of multiple liver tumors and malignant pleural mesothelioma, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Vol. 9, pp. 89–95.

Tanaka, H., Sakurai, Y., Suzuki, M., Masunaga, S., Mitsumoto, T., Fujita, K., Kashino, G., Kinashi, Y., Liu, Y., Takada, M., Ono, K., dan Marushasi, A. (2011). Experimental verification of beam characteristics for cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source (C-BENS), Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 69, no. 12, 1642–1645.

Tanaka, H., Y. Sakurai, M. Suzuki, S. Masunaga, T. Mitsumoto, Y. Kinashi, M. Narabayashi, Y. Nakagawa, T. Watanabe, N. Fujimoto, A. Maruhashi, N. Kondo, K. Ono. (2014). Evaluation of thermal neutron irradiation field using a cyclotron-based neutron source for alpha autoradiography, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 88, pp. 153–156

Tanaka, K., Satoru Endo, Shunsuke Yonai, Mamoru Baba, Masaharu Hoshi. (2014). A TPD and AR based comparison of accelerator neutron irradiation fields between Li and W targets for BNCT, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 88 , pp. 229–232.

Ueda, H., Tanaka, H., Sakurai, Y. (2015). The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol.104, pp. 25–28.

World Helath Organization (WHO).(2015). Cancer Key Facts, Fact Sheet, Fact sheet N°297 Updated February 2015, Article retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/

Wang, Z., Morris, C.L., Bacon J.D., Brockwell, M.I., dan Ramsey, J.C. (2014). A double helix neutron detector using micron-size 10 B powder, LANL.

Yonai, S., Itoga, T., Baba, M., Nakamura, T., Yokobori, H., dan Tahara, Y. (2009) Benchmark experiments for cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 61, 997–1001.
How to Cite
Ardana, I., Kusminarto, K., & Sardjono, Y. (2016). Optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly Design for Boron Neutron Capture Cancer Therapy Facility Based on 30 MeV Cyclotron. Indonesian Journal of Physics and Nuclear Applications, 1(3), 128-137. https://doi.org/10.24246/ijpna.v1i3.128-137