Characteristics of daily rainfall over the Maritime Continent
Daily rainfall characteristics is important in the anticipation of natural hazard events, such as floods and landslides. In this study, daily rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project One Degree Daily (GPCP1DD) dataset are used to analyze the rainfall frequency, intensity and extreme rainfall indicators over the Indonesian Maritime Continent. A threshold of 1 mm is used to define a wet day. The analysis is conducted over the whole domain and several sub domains. It is revealed that the rainfall patterns over Indonesia are shaped by the frequency distribution of rainfall intensity over different seasons. Heavy rainfall (greater than 15 mm/day) generally determines the rainfall peak season over a specific region. It is also shown that the land areas receive more frequent and more intense rainfall than the ocean areas.
Alexander, L. V, & Arblaster, J. M. (2009). Assessing trends in observed and modelled climate extremes over Australia in relation to future projections. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 417–435. http://doi.org/10.1002/joc
Becker, E. J., Berbery, E. H., & Higgins, R. W. (2009). Understanding the characteristics of daily precipitation over the United States using the North American regional reanalysis. Journal of Climate, 22, 6268–6286. http://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2838.1
Behrangi, A., Stephens, G., Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Lambrigtsen, B., & Lebsock, M. (2014). An update on the oceanic precipitation rate and its zonal distribution in light of advanced observations from space. Journal of Climate, 27, 3957–3965. http://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00679.1
Chou, C., Chen, C.-A., Tan, P.-H., & Chen, K. T. (2012). Mechanisms for global warming impacts on precipitation frequency and intensity. Journal of Climate, 25, 3291–3306. http://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00239.1
Dai, A. (2006). Precipitation characteristics in eighteen coupled climate models. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 19, 4605–4630.
Dai, A., Lin, X., & Hsu, K.-L. (2007). The frequency , intensity , and diurnal cycle of precipitation in surface and satellite observations over low- and mid-latitudes. Climate Dynamics, 29, 727–744. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-007-0260-y
Dai, A., & Trenberth, K. E. (2004). The diurnal cycle and its depiction in the community climate system model, 17, 930–951.
Frich, P., Alexander, L. V., Della-Marta, P., Gleason, B., Haylock, M., Klein Tank, A. M. G., & Peterson, T. (2002). Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research, 19, 193–212.
Gershunov, A. (1998). ENSO Influence on intraseasonal extreme rainfall and temperature frequencies in the contiguous United States: Implications for long-range predictability. Journal of Climate, 11, 3192–3203.
Hamada, J., Yamanaka, M. D., Matsumoto, J., Fukao, S., Winarso, P. A., & Sribimawati, T. (2002). Spatial and temporal variations of the rainy season over Indonesia and their Link to ENSO. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 80(2), 285–310.
Hastenrath, S. (1987). Predictability of Java monsoon rainfall anomalies. Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26, 133–141.
Haylock, M., & McBride, J. (2001). Spatial coherence and predictability of Indonesian wet season rainfall. Journal of Climate, 14, 3882–3887.
Herold, N., Alexander, L. V., Donat, M. G., Contractor, S., & Becker, A. (2016). How much does it rain over land? Geophysical Research Letters, 43(1), 341–348. http://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL066615.
Huffman, G. J., Adler, R. F., Morrissey, M. M., Curtis, S., Joyce, R. J., McGavock, B., & Susskind, J. (2001). Global precipitationat one-degree daily resolution from multisatellite observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2, 36–50.
Jackson, I. J. (1972). Mean daily rainfall intensity and number of rain days over Tanzania. Geofisika Annaler, 54A(3), 369–375.
Janowiak, J. E., Kousky, V. E., & Joyce, R. J. (2005). Diurnal cycle of precipitation determined from the CMORPH high spatial and temporal resolution global precipitation analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, 1–18. http://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006156
Kimoto, M., Yasutomi, N., Yokoyama, C., & Emori, S. (2005). Projected changes in precipitation characteristics around Japan. SOLA, 1, 85–88.
Kirono, D. G. C., Tapper, N. J., & McBride, J. L. (1999). Documenting Indonesian rainfall in the 1997/1998 El Nino event. Physical Geography, 20, 422–435.
Klein Tank, A. M. G., Zwiers, F. W., & Zhang, X. (2009). Guidelines on Analysis of extremes in a changing climate in support of informed decisions for adaptation. (World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme Report No. 72).
Mori, S., Hamada, J.-I., Tauhid, Y. I., Yamanaka, M. D., Okamoto, N., Murata, F., … Sribimawati, T. (2004). Diurnal land – Sea rainfall peak migration over Sumatera island, Indonesian Maritime Continent, observed by TRMM satellite and intensive rawinsonde soundings. Monthly Weather Review, 132, 2021–2039.
Neale, R., & Slingo, J. (2003). The Maritime Continent and its role in the global climate: A GCM study. Journal of Climate, 16, 834–848.
Nicholls, N., & Murray, W. (1999). Workshop on indices and indicators for climate extremes: Asheville, NC, USA, 3-6 June 1997 - Breakout Group B: Precipitation. Climatic Change, 42, 23–29.
Osborn, T. J., Hulme, M., Jones, P. D., & Basnett, T. A. (2000). Observed trends in the daily intensity of United Kingdom precipitation. International Journal of Climatology, 20, 347–364.
Pendergrass, A. G., & Deser, C. (2017). Climatological characteristics of typical daily precipitation. Journal of Climate, 30, 5985–6003. http://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0684.1
Pendergrass, A. G., & Hartmann, D. L. (2014). Two modes of change of the distribution of rain. Journal of Climate, 29, 8357–8371. http://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00182.1
Peterson, T. C., Folland, C., Gruza, G., Hogg, W., Mokssit, A., & Plummer, N. (2001). Report on the activities of the working group on climate change detection and related rapporteurs (ICPO Publication Series No. 48). International CLIVAR Project Office. Southampton, UK.
Qian, J.-H. (2008). Why precipitation is mostly concentrated over islands in the Maritime Continent. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65, 1428–1441. http://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2422.1
Ramage, C. S. (1968). Role of a tropical “Maritime Continent” in the atmospheric circulation. Monthly Weather Review, 96(June), 365–370.
Ricko, M., Adler, R. F., & Huffman, G. J. (2016). Climatology and interannual variability of quasi-global intense precipitation using satellite observations. Journal of Climate, 29, 5447–5468. http://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0662.1
Schumacher, C., & Houze Jr., R. A. (2003). Stratiform rain in the tropics as seen by the TRMM precipitation radar. Journal of Climate, 16, 1739–1756.
Scoccimarro, E., Villarini, G., Vichi, M., Zampieri, M., Fogli, P. G., Belucci, A., & Gualdi, S. (2015). Projected changes in intense precipitation over Europe at the daily and subdaily time scales. Journal of Climate, 28, 6193–6203. http://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00779.1
Singh, C. V. (1998). Relationships between Rainy Days , Mean daily intensity and seasonal rainfall in normal , flood and drought years over India. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 15(3), 424–432.
Sun, Y., Solomon, S., & Dai, A. (2006). How often does it rain? Journal of Climate, 19, 916–934.
Trenberth, K. E., Dai, A., Rasmussen, R. M., & Parsons, D. B. (2003). The changing character of precipitation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (September), 1205–1217. http://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-84-9-1205